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Versioning Framework

The collection and definition of the principles to be applied when assigning version numbers to the specifications, documents and other artifacts created by 1EdTech. These principles are based upon Sematic Versioning. It is not unusual for a document and other artifacts to have more than one versioning component so that the relationship to the associated 1EdTech specification version can be maintained.

Example: There are several released versions of the OneRoster specification: 1.0 (deprecated), 1.1, and most recently, 1.2 which was released in the fall of 2022. 

Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

this is a web-based educational technology platform for the digital aspects of courses of study, usually within educational institutions. It is more commonly known as a learning management system.

Vocabulary Definition Exchange

the 1EdTech Vocabulary Definition Exchange (VDEX) standard defines a grammar for the exchange of value lists of various classes: collections often denoted "vocabulary." Specifically, VDEX defines a syntax for the exchange of simple machine-readable lists of values or terms, together with information that may aid a human in understanding the meaning or applicability of the various terms. VDEX may be used to express valid data for use in instances of 1EdTech Metadata, 1EdTech Learning Information Services, 1EdTech Common Cartridge, etc., for example. In these cases, the terms are often not human language words or phrases but more abstract tokens. VDEX can also express strictly hierarchical schemes compactly while allowing for more loose networks of relationships to be expressed if required.



The W3C is the World Wide Web Consortium, an international community where member organizations, a staff, and the public work together to develop web standards.


Web Accessibility Initiative within the W3C.


WAI-WCAG standards for the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, these are a series of guidelines for improving web accessibility. These guidelines help make web content useful to all users.

Web Services Description Language

WSDL is an XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly and then bound to a concrete network protocol and message format to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints (services). WSDL is extensible to allow the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of what message formats or network protocols are used to communicate. The binding used, primarily, is WSDL in conjunction with SOAP 1.1, HTTP, and MIME. The 1EdTech standards that have services expressed using WSDL are Learning Information Services (LIS) and Resource List Interoperability (RLI).


XML Schema Definition (XSD)

Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema Definition is a World Wide Web Consortium recommendation that specifies how to describe the elements in an XML document formally. An XSD is used to verify that the content of an instance adheres to the definitions established for that object. 1EdTech creates XSDs for those standards that will use XML as the data exchange format. These XSDs are used as part of the conformance and certification testing process. The 1EdTech standards that use XML/XSD include Metadata, Common Cartridge, QTI/APIP, and OpenVideo Metadata.


Yet Another Markup Language (YAML)

Yet Another Markup Language (YAML) – is a human-readable data-serialization language. It is commonly used for configuration files and in applications where data is being stored or transmitted. YAML targets many of the same communications applications as XML but has a minimal syntax which intentionally differs from SGML. In 1EdTech specifications the use of YAML occurs when OpenAPI and AsyncAPI files are produced to provide machine readable definitions of a service. Both JSON and YAML formats of service API definitions are produced by 1EdTech.

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